Giuseppe Casuscelli. Introduzione — 2. Per una prima ricostruzione fattuale della crisi politica turca nel biennio — 3. Il giudizio sullo scioglimento del partito AKP: le argomentazioni delle parti — 4. La sentenza della Corte costituzionale del 30 luglio La Corte tra funzione di equilibrio e difesa del laicismo — 5. Cenni conclusivi, nella prospettiva del diritto ecclesiastico europeo. Cinema ed enogastronomia nel portale turistico della Regione Toscana. La riscoperta della stereoscopia per la rappresentazione dello spazio architettonico. In particolare, vengono affrontati le questioni relative alla gestione della doppia data di pubblicazione, all'aggancio con i codici identificativi e le conseguenze bibliometriche, e al diritto d'autore.
An unusual spliced variant of DELLA protein, a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling, in lettuce. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.
Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries. Occupare spazi, liberare luoghi della mente e della cittadinanza: esperienze di riappropriazione a Roma. Il ruolo di Betlemme nella storia cristiana e nella posizione della Santa Sede.
Osservazioni introduttive e metodologiche - 2. Betlemme nella Bibbia - 3. Politica, cultura e religione: dalla dominazione romana alla disfatta dei mamelucchi - 4. Dall'occupazione turca ai nostri giorni; il predominio della storia politica - 5. Il muro della vergogna. Dal mondo del pressappoco all'universo della precisione. Ha fatto parte di numerosi Organismi nazionali ed internazionali. Il sistema costituzionale e concordatario — 2.
Brevi cenni sulle radici storiche del confessionismo dominicano - 3. Verso una soluzione della questione matrimoniale: la legge n. Il dito di Galileo le dieci grandi idee della scienza. Domande e risposte per dieci idee che hanno plasmato il mondo di oggi. Possiamo rintracciare l'origine e il divenire del cosmo? Che cosa significa l'evoluzione del vivente? Cosa sono quegli elusivi quanti alla base della fisica contemporanea? Siamo sicuri che l'aritmetica non ci inganni? Peter Atkins offre una guida chiara e completa all'impresa scientifica, seguendo la via indicata dal dito di Galileo.
La seconda edizione di questo testo mantiene tutte le caratteristiche della prima edizione, specificamente progettata per i corsi semestrali della Lurea Magistrale in Fisica: un testo di riferimento completo, autosufficiente, facilmente utilizzabile, e accessibile a studenti provenienti da indirizzi e piani di studio diversi. Contiene le principali informazioni sulla teoria gravitazionale che al giorno d'oggi ogni laureato in Fisica dovrebbe possedere: si parte dalle nozioni di base della Relativita' Generale, e si sviluppa la teoria gravitazionale classica sino ad argomenti di frontiera come l'estensione supersimmetrica delle equazioni di Einstein.
In aggiunta, la seconda edizione include nuovo materiale di forte interesse attuale come, ad esempio: i una dettagliata presentazione dei modelli gravitazionali multidimensionali motivati dalle teorie delle stringhe e delle membrane ; ii una originale discussione delle misure di velocita' e degli effetti di dilatazione temporale in presenza di gravita' motiv The second part presents the possible advantages of the multilingual and multicultural dimension through key words singled-out by the author thanks to explorations in Italian schools.
I problemi di matematica della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Nasce come aggiornamento del volume precedente "I problemi di Matematica della Scuola Normale", e raccoglie gli esercizi di matematica assegnati all'esame di ammissione alla Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa dal al , con la loro risoluzione. Il libro si rivolge a studenti e docenti della Scuola Secondaria, e si chiude con un Glossario in cui vengono richiamati i termini usati. Oppure sono destinati a non comprendersi e separarsi? Eppure, quando parliamo di questi argomenti, usiamo sempre un gran numero di parole straniere, negli ultimi anni soprattutto inglesi.
Procedure di controllo delle infezioni della ferita chirurgica nelle chirurgie generali della regione Piemonte. Lo studio di queste ultime consente di individuare e analizzare quali procedure siano adottate fra quelle definite in letteratura di provata efficacia nella prevenzione delle SSI e quali siano di uso comune pur non esistendo per esse evidenza di efficacia.
Obiettivo: descrivere e analizzare le procedure di controllo delle SSI messe in atto nelle chirurgie generali degli ospedali del Piemonte sotto il profilo assistenziale e ambientale. Materiale e metodi : lo studio prevede una settimana di osservazione nelle sale operatorie di chirurgia generale da parte di personale formato. Saranno indagati con schede appositamente strutturate: 1 tutti gli interventi, per rilevarne le caratteristiche e le misure di controllo pre e intraoperatorie rivolte al paziente; 2 i comportamenti degli operatori in sala; 3 i dati relativi al controllo ambientale.
Gregory Crane e i cittadini della repubblica delle lettere. I grandi della fisica da Platone a Heisenberg. An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in , this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo , a….
Brain MRI lesions in neuromyelitis optica: clinical case; Lesiones cerebrales de resonancia magnetica en neuromielitis optica: caso clinico. Many cases of patients with neuromyelitis optica have submitted without demyelinating lesions in the cerebral white matter, it has documented that this entity can cause from the onset of illness or through its natural evolution. Diagnostic methods currently as Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI and specific antibodies in plasma such as antiaquaporin-4 have been diagnosed of neuromyelitis optica cases that were initially confused with multiple sclerosis.
Disease in Costa Rica has been little prevalent and is not exactly known what the prevalence and incidence. The degree of disorder is illustrated through a case study, both in the cerebral white matter as spinal cord, in a patient with neuromyelitis optica during a follow-up period of 4 years. This is the first case that has been reported in the scientific literature of Costa Rica. Los metodos de diagnostico en la actualidad como la Imagen por Resonancia Magnetica IRM y la determinacion de anticuerpos especificos en plasma como la antiaquaporina-4 han logrado diagnosticar algunos casos de neuromielitis optica que inicialmente fueron confundidos con esclerosis multiple.
La enfermedad en Costa Rica ha sido poco prevalente y no se ha conocido con exactitud cual es la prevalencia e incidencia. El grado de afeccion ha sido ilustrado a traves de un caso clinico, tanto en la sustancia blanca cerebral como espinal, en un paciente con neuromielitis optica durante un periodo de seguimiento de 4 anos.
Este es el primer caso que ha sido reportado en la literatura cientifica de Costa Rica. Sorveglianza della circolazione ambientale dei poliovirus nel Lazio. Metodo: sono stati analizzati 26 campioni di liquami e 36 campioni di acque superficiali contaminate da liquami. Le particelle virali sono state concentrate mediante ultra filtrazione tangenziale Risultati e conclusioni: sono stati isolati complessivamente 6 poliovirus di cui 4 da acque superficiali.
I virus erano tutti Sabin-kike e retromutati ma non ricombinanti. In questo lavoro si propone un metodo per selezionare l'enorme informazione contenuta nei suggerimenti di studentesse e studenti. Tuttavia esiste una porzione di insegnamenti per i quali l'azione di verifica puntuale delle affermazioni contenute nei questionari appare utile e doverosa.
Tecnicamente, l'uso del cosiddetto "trimming method" appare particolarmente efficace per la selezione degli insegnamenti problematici. In sostanza si tratta di un metodo, molto adoperato in situazioni molto diverse, per ripulire il campione statistico dalla possibile presenza, in questo caso, di. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas.
In this paper are presented the results obtained in the measurement of magnetic losses in metallic conduits in electric installations. The losses for parasitic currents and by hysteresis were obtained in different conditions of magnetic density, caused by the net current resulting from the sum of all the currents of all the conductors that travel along the conduit.
These currents are named differential currents, and the conditions in which they appear in the electric installations are described. The magnetic induction phenomenon that occurs in metallic conduit is briefly described and the basic concepts that describe it. A theoretical-experimental methodology is offered to quantify the energy losses by parasitic currents and by the metal magnetization in these metallic conduits.
At the same time, the impact of these differential currents impact in the reactance of the electric installation is quantified. The obtained results for twelve conduits of different diameters and different wall thickness are shown. A comparison analysis is made with the reported results in a previous article, where the losses were estimated by means of the temperature rise measurement of the metallic wall. Las perdidas por corrientes parasitas y por histeresis se obtuvieron para diferentes condiciones de densidad magnetica , provocada por la corriente neta resultante de la suma de las corrientes de todos los conductores que viajan por la tuberia.
A estas corrientes se les designa corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se explica brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que se presenta en las tuberias metalicas y los conceptos basicos que la describen. Se plantea una metodologia teorico-experiemental para cuantificar las perdidas de energia, por. Le avventure di Mr. Tompkins viaggio "scientificamente fantastico" nel mondo della fisica. La prefazione di Roger Penrose presenta Mr.
Tompkins ad una nuova generazione di lettori e rivisita le sue avventure alla luce degli attuali sviluppi della fisica moderna. Un intreccio di iniziative scientifiche. Reti Medievali e il futuro della storiografia digitale. Il libro parte da una semplice domanda: esistono fenomeni che alla fine si riveleranno semplicemente inconoscibili e inspiegabili? Alle origini della conservazione del paesaggio in Belgio: il contributo originale di Louis Van der Swaelmen. La musica del vuoto indagine sulla natura della materia. Il fatto religioso e la nascita della biopolitica. La disciplina del fatto religioso qualificante di un ordinamento giuridico costituzionale — 3.
This essay tries to underline how Foucault described a system of rules not only focused on economics and politics, but a complex theoretical construction to take a look at religious beliefs and their effects into a modern juridical order. Sviluppo e crisi. Per una prospettiva della compresenza. I tre giorni del congresso sono stati caratterizzati da letture, sessioni scientifiche, corsi educazionali, incontri con gli esperti, sezioni poster, corsi di aggiornamento su temi speciali, e diversi simposi.
Dal punto di vista clinico, sono The Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University was to a certain extent a one-man achievement. Founded by Adalberto Pazzini in , its collections comprehended books, objects, as well as photographs, movies, and other didactic video. The Istituto was also a center for publications, conferences and meetings. The archival sources that document its activity have been re-evaluated and restored in recent years, together with the collections housed in the Library and in the Museum.
Composizione e dinamiche della microflora in differenti ecosistemi caseari. Nel processo produttivo del formaggio, la selezione di parametri tecnologici pu Introduzione - 2. Fenotipo storico - 3. Progetto di legge sulle fondazioni comunitarie del Prof. VI Memorandum della Conferenza episcopale cattolica turca, del 10 giugno Teatri della memoria: una ricerca sulle mediatiche domestiche.
Full Text Available Questo contributo ruota intorno ai risultati di una ricerca collettiva che riguarda i rapporti fra alcuni oggetti della casa e le memorie di chi li raccoglie. Nelle case ci sono mobili e soprammobili, fotografie e manifesti, quadri, e infiniti altri oggetti. Si tratta di un insieme di oggetti la cui analisi consente di comprendere sia diversi aspetti dei rapporti che le persone intrattengono con le proprie memorie, sia alcuni dei modi in cui spazi privati e pubblici si interconnettono.
I cataloghi nella letteratura americana della Grande Depressione. Full Text Available Il presente saggio si propone di analizzare alcune opere letterarie in senso lato poesie, libri-documentario, script di film-documetario scritte negli Stati Uniti negli anni della Grande Depressione alla luce della presenza ricorrente di cataloghi, liste e inventari. Thoreau, il saggio si sofferma su alcune opere-documentario degli anni Trenta del Novecento; un periodo che, segnato profondamente dalla crisi economica e testimone di una riconfigurazione della geografia reale e simbolica del territorio nazionale, punta nuovamente a cataloghi e inventari, secondo una scelta retorica funzionale alla rappresentazione del rovescio del mito di abbondanza delle origini.
Verbo come elemento della frase in friulano ed in frances. In questo contesto, la LUISS partecipa al progetto di sperimentazione di harvesting automatico delle tesi di dottorato da parte delle Biblioteche Nazionali Centrali di Firenze e di Roma — Magazzini Digitali - ed attua una precisa politica di archiviazione per garantire il rispetto della normativa vigente in tema di Deposito legale.
Between the two main strategies meant to ensure open access publishing, the Green road is fully represented by the Institutional Repositories. In Italy the history of institutional repositories is strongly characterized and driven by the activity of CRUI, in particular by the Working Group for OA formed with the purpose of giving effect to the principles of the Declaration of Berlin, cornerstone of the Open Access movement. In particular. Neanche sbagliata il fallimento della teoria delle stringhe e la corsa all'unificazione delle leggi della fisica.
Collective memory and the Casa della Memoria : on the potential and risk of instant patina. It observes that the Casa della Memoria uses instant patina with the aim of solidifying a. We report the first Italian occurrence of yukonite, a rare hydrated arsenate of calcium and ferric iron, from Grotta della Monaca cave, S. Agata di Esaro, Cosenza, Italy. We have studied samples of cotype yukonite from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada, for comparison.
At Grotta della Monaca La teoria della conoscenza scientifica da Kant ai giorni nostri. Appartiene, dunque, alla fase produttiva dell'"ultimo Enriques"; e rientra in quel genere di scritti cui concordemente si riconosce il merito di avere introdotto fra i primi in Italia l'interesse per lo studio della storia del pensiero scientifico.
Immagini del mondo e forme della politica in Max Weber. Delicta reservata seu delicta graviora: la disciplina dei crimini rimessi alla competenza della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede. Introduzione alle fattispecie — 4. La procedura — 8. Qualche considerazione di sistema. Quam maximis potest itineribus: andata e ritorno della costruzione tra immagine e modello nello spazio grafico della geometria descrittiva. Full Text Available Il contributo testimonia una strategia d'insegnamento congiunto del rilievo architettonico, della geometria descrittiva e del disegno digitale concepita come un viaggio di andata e ritorno tra immagine e modello.
Il circolo didattico si chiude poi costruendo rappresentazioni tabulari tradizionali dei modelli. Per un dizionario della ricerca sul Technology Enhanced Learning. Dopo una presentazione delle motivazioni, vengono discussi gli attuali sviluppi del lavoro e presentati i criteri seguiti per le principali scelte effettuate in merito ai metodi e alle tecnologie utilizzate.
Strada facendo si discutono le famose verifiche sperimentali della Teorie del tutto la ricerca della spiegazione ultima. Questi interrogativi di carattere fondamentale sono stati fuori moda per secoli: gli scienziati ne diffidavano, teologi e filosofi se ne erano stancati. Linee guida per la gestione della Volpe in Italia. Chi ha paura del relativismo? Nelle sezioni conclusive si discutono le implicazioni del costruttivismo realista.
Gli effetti dell'attrito sulla stima della disuguaglianza in Italia. Movimenti della faglia del Iago di Cavazzo, in relazione con la locale caduta di pioggia. L a centrale si t r o v a sul bordo occidentale della grande faglia del lago. Il saggio affronta il tema della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori quale diritto fondamentale. Le conclusioni cui giunge una parte della giurisprude High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana.
High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies. Full Text Available La formazione rappresenta uno strumento basilare nella promozione della lingua e della cultura italiana. The role of training in the promotion of Italian language and culture. The topic is complex because it encompasses diverse issues. On the one hand appropriate means are needed, like telematic resources, which encourage and facilitate spreading abroad.
On the other, university and school courses need to be reorganized in light of the new training needs. The role of Italian universities could to be stronger if they met foreign standards, to promote the circulation of students towards and not just away from Italy. As far as regards the type of training to be undertaken, the humanistic. Nuovi scenari della psicopatologia. In questo modo, mentre si esplorano le forme del mondo esterno si disegnano le forme del mondo interno e, viceversa, con gli occhi del mondo interno si descrivono le forme del mondo esterno.
L'arte della vita: biotecnologie e bioetica. La strana storia della luce e del colore. Sino al la luce era oggetto di studio degli scienziati ed il colore dei filosofi. Il libro analizza le teorie che furono sviluppate dai greci, per evolversi successivamente nelle teorie degli scienziati arabi e approdare al medio evo. Linguet e i paradossi sociali della politica. Full Text Available Questo saggio affronta la dottrina politica di S.
La categoria di rapporto sociale non esprime la coordinazione tra soggetti indifferenti, ma la subordinazione di alcuni individui al potere sociale dei proprietari. Competitive Balance dopo la sentenza Bosman: il caso della pallavolo in Italia. Introduzione — 1. Economia dello Sport e Competitive Balance: alcuni principali contributi teorici — 2. Misurazioni del Competitive Balance — 3. Di fronte a tale perdita, non sappiamo se temporanea o permanente, ci siamo posti alcuni interrogativi. This paper addresses the recent disappearance of the Pesaro codex of the Vita nuova, as lately ascertained by Donato Pirovano.
Without knowing if this loss is temporary or permanent, some questions concerning its possible recovery through a copy of the original manuscript need to be asked. The object of his study is to answer these questions through the analysis of a potential descriptus. Only the Pesaro edition, copied from the missing manuscript, seemed to be eligible for this role.
To ascertain whether this edition was asuitable substitute for thr Pesaro codex, I collated it with passages copied directly from the manuscript by Michele Barbi in his edition of the Vita Nuova. Even though the great number of discordances suggests that the former cannot be considered a copy of the original, its value as testimony still holds true. Full Text Available The hormones gibberellins GAs control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses. This task largely relies on the activity of the DELLA proteins, nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators that do not seem to have DNA binding capacity.
The identification of early target genes of DELLA action is key not only to understand how GAs regulate physiological responses, but also to get clues about the molecular mechanisms by which DELLAs regulate gene expression. Our results show that the induction of GAI activity has an almost immediate effect on gene expression. Although this transcriptional regulation is largely mediated by the PIFs and HY5 transcription factors based on target meta-analysis, additional evidence points to other transcription factors that would be directly involved in DELLA regulation of gene expression.
Finally, Gene Ontology analysis highlights the impact of DELLA regulation upon the homeostasis of the GA, auxin, and ethylene pathways, as well as upon pre-existing transcriptional networks. L'Ultimo capitolo della tradizionale produzione ceramica di Barrama Tunisia. Molti chiari segnali indiziano la fine della produzione della caratteristica ceramica di Barrama, presso Bargou, nel Governatorato tunisino di Siliana.
La fine delle certezze il tempo, il caos e le leggi della natura. Strategie della conoscenza nella riflessione di Guglielmo di S. ThierryAmor incapibilem capit, incomprehensibilem comprehendit. Il problema della visio Dei: si intende comprendere cosa Dio sia, non chi sia. La declinazio Valutazione e mappatura dei servizi culturali nei paesaggi terrazzati. Il caso studio della Costiera Amalfitana. Full Text Available I paesaggi culturali rappresentano una risorsa fondamentale per lo sviluppo sostenibile. Attualmente molti paesaggi terrazzati sono considerati a rischio a causa delle mutate condizioni socio-economiche.
Viene affrontato il tema della valutazione e mappatura dei servizi culturali, con riferimento al paesaggio terrazzato della Costiera Amalfitana in Campania. Questa seconda parte illustra un esempio di trasposizione didattica realizzata in Italia, in classi della scuola secondaria di II grado. Documenti per una storia dell'ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala di Siena. Dopo avere illustrato la struttura della documentazione, composta di 6. Per una educazione linguistica trasversale: la sfida della competenza multilingue. Integrating different language learning experiences, however, involves integrating teaching experiences, i.
A fronte di.
Il Modello Standard MS , fino ad una scala di energie di circa GeV, e' attualmente la teoria che descrive con il migliore accordo sperimentale il mondo delle particelle elementari e le loro interazioni. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire. Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person or people , and another to others.
I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.
Brasile Gli anni della svolta per Alberto Moravia. He had recently finished La noia, his eleventh novel, the one that most directly is connected to his first novel, Gli indifferenti , and it marks a decisive turning point in his artistic, intellectual, and human course. The essay reconstructs the life and work of the year-old writer, in which a year research is summarized and concluded, opening a new phase.
Rereading the articles written for Il Corriere della Sera and the review of the Quarto de despejo by Carolina de Jesus, we focused on the origin and acute reflection of Moravia about Brazil in those years Brasilia, Bahia, Rio, between past and future. The experience of Brazil, for the writer, who in those following years will attempt new paths in the intellectual and literary field, and new goals for his travels, always more oriented, in the company of Dacia Maraini and Pier Paolo Pasolini, toward the Third World.
Angiostrongylus vasorum in 20 cani della provincia di Chieti, Italia. Da gennaio a settembre sono stati esaminati cani, 56 carcasse e campioni di feci. I pionieri italiaNi della geofisiCa. Full Text Available Vengono rapidamente passati in rassenga, seguendo l'ordine cronologico, gli studiosi di geofisica — intesa in senso lato — clie, a partire dalla seconda meta del Settecento, ebbero ad interessarsi in Italia di elettricita atmosferica, magnetismo terrestre, idrografla, oceanografia fisica, sismologia e vulcanologia, con intenti pionieristici.
Sono ricordati i principali risultati raggiunti da una trentina di ricercatori fra i quali spiccano, per la vastita del lavoro compiuto e per la novita dei risultati, Leopoldo Nobili e Macedonio Melloni. Ma, ciascuno nei suo campo, scoperte di rilievo fecero pure G. Alcuni vantano priorita di rilievo: scoperta della doppia oscillazione diurna del barometro Chiminello, ; unicita sorgiva delle varie radiazioni dello spettro M.
Melloni; sismografo elettromagnetico a registrazione continua Palmieri, ; microsismi Bertelli, ; il paleomagnetismo Oddone e Sella, ; la radiazione cosmica Pacini, ;. The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus.
Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development. Fisica per poeti lo scienziato come uomo e artista : storia della fisica da Galileo ai giorni nostri. Da Galileo ad oggi, intuizioni, errori, grandi scoperte dei massimi protagonisti della fisica classica e moderna: la scienza vissuta come un'appassionante avventura. Politica come intrattenimento. Politici come Silvio Berlusconi, Beppe Grillo, ma anche Barack Obama pongono il proprio corpo al centro della rappresentazione mediatica, utilizzandolo non solo come canale di comunicazione, ma anche come fonte di intrattenimento.
Sulle ipotesi che stanno alla base della geometria e altri scritti scientifici e filosofici. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program.
Birds received a photoperiod of 14LD and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Overall hatchability was only Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.
The recent restoration of the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo has made to appear on the background of the scene of Constantine's dream a number of stars. They are clearly painted with the intention to illustrate a sort of "natural" sky. In Anna Maria Maetzke recognized in a group of stars the constellation of the Ursa Minor, but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky.
In this paper I show the existence of more constellations in the fresco, which are hardly detectable due to the mirror representation of the starry sky. Such a mirror image, as the Universe was seen from the outside, has a Greek origin and this kind of representation was introduced in Western Europe not only in celestial globes but also in star maps. This discovery leads to consider that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which he reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to Piero by the astronomer Regiomontanus who was in Italy since following the Cardinal Bessarion in his journey from Wien to Rome.
In , Cardinal Bessarion was named papal legate to Venice and in July of the same year he leaved Rome together with Regiomontanus to reach Ferrara and Venice. The trip took more than two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines because the plague in Ferrara. Bessarion and Regiomontanus might have met Piero who was painting the cycle of frescoes in Arezzo and supplied him with a star map.
Unfortunately, due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to the painted sky. L'universo elegante superstringhe, dimensioni nascoste e la ricerca della teoria ultima. Reclutamento e formazione dei poliziotti: il caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese. Full Text Available Partendo dal caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese, questo articolo illustra il modo in cui il reclutamento e la formazione possono contribuire, informalmente, alla ripartizione del potere nelle organizzazioni di polizia.
D' Aquino, L. Innovazione; Cassano, G. Ambiente; Cirio, U. Maria di Galeria, RM Italy. A model for management of the vegetation complex in the ENEA National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment Trisaia research center in Rotondella Southern Italy , based on the restoration of wild potential vegetation and application of sustainable agriculture practices, is proposed.
Benefits on environmental status and vegetation management are discussed. Sono discussi i vantaggi ottenibili dall'applicazione del modello di intervento sull'ambiente locale e sulla gestione del verde. The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin GA signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues.
DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear.
La portata etica della tragedia tra Bernard Williams e Martha Nussbaum. Full Text Available Il saggio affronta il tema della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori quale diritto fondamentale. Le conclusioni cui giunge una parte della giurisprudenza in merito all'irrilevanza del concorso di colpa del lavoratore sono condivise dall'A. The foreword analyses of international and EU regulatory scene, the A. The A.
Italian Academies and Their Networks, 1525–1700
Roberto ARLT et al. Smith, in Barnes J. Aristotle, De anima A similar account is given of intellectual cognition. The information provided by these senses needs to be processed and stored, sequentially, it was argued, by a system of internal senses. Rather than experiencing separate perceptions of red, of juicy, of round, and of sweet, I have the perception of a red, round, juicy, sweet apple.
This can only be explained by the possibility that the information provided by our external senses is somehow conjoined, and is present in a single place where this combined perception is formed. This is one of the principal arguments in favor of the first of the internal senses, the common sense. As such, imagination was the knot that tied sensation and reason together. Pasnau R. Nevertheless, the examples and metaphors used in the medieval discussion were virtually all visual.
I will omit the scare quotes from now on.
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For an overview of the medieval tradition of the internal senses, cf. Wolfson H. Doctrines des sens internes dAvicenne a Thomas dAquin. It also plays an active role, where it combines previously acquired phantasms and thereby produces new phantasms at will—a golden mountain being the classic example.
As Aquinas points out: One must recognise, however, that the life of a complete animal requires that it apprehend a thing not only when that which is sensible is present, but also when it is absent. Otherwise, since the movement and action of an animal follow apprehension, the animal would not be moved to seek anything absent. In this paper I will focus almost exclusively on its role in human cognition. All translations from the Summa are taken from Pasnau R.
Summa Theologiae ia Indianapolis - Cambridge: Since non-human animals lack reason, these phantasms are not pseudo-concepts. Moreover, since non-human animals lack any form of intellect, phantasms are not present in the intellect. This is why it is apt to refer to them as images, as long as we keep in mind that the visual dimension is only part of the information contained in them, as noted above.
Francesco Verde | La Sapienza University of Rome - pugecuca.ga
We may also approach imagination from the perspective of its relation to the intellectual soul found only in human beings. In human beings, the imagination has a strong link to the intellect—so strong in fact, that it prompted Aristotle to wonder whether human rational thought could even be separated from imagination. To put this more precisely, human thought depends on images in two ways. But we also need images in the second, much stronger sense that we never seem to think without using them.
Aquinas gives the following two arguments for this stronger thesis: 11 Aristotle, De anima i. Cranefield P. Second, anyone can experience within oneself that when one tries to understand something, one forms certain phantasms for oneself by way of examples, in which one examines, as it were, the thing one is striving to understand. Given that the intellect itself is not an embodied power, and therefore cannot be affected directly by damage to the brain, the only remaining explanation is that there is something wrong with the images on which the intellect relies.
The second example requires less comment. When we think about the properties of a triangle in mathematics we tend to picture a triangle, and when we think about humanity in general we tend to picture a human being. Similarly, when teaching, we often use visual examples. If the connection between imagination and intellect is understood to be so strong as to make imageless thought impossible, the immortality of the human soul is called into question.
This implies that the human soul will continue to exist and be able to understand things even after the death of the body. But how could our immortal disembodied soul continue to function, once the bodily faculty of imagination has been corrupted, if all thought relies on bodily images?
Verboon to the present volume. But for a contemporary defense of the vital role of images in thought, cf. Kosslyn S. For an overview of recent debates, cf. Thomas N. If having a soul is equivalent to being alive, and if soul and body are not two distinct entities, as Aristotle maintains, one would expect the connection between intellectual thought and bodily images to remain constant.
The hypothesis that the soul in its separated state is somehow able to understand things without recourse to phantasms might easily lead to the conclusion that this disembodied and separate soul has a more perfect way of knowing things than the embodied soul has. Human souls, by contrast, are not. But the only reason that our knowledge needs to be reawakened is that the soul has lost the knowledge of the Ideas it once had before becoming embodied.
The bodily images are therefore at most a stepping stone. Pasnau, Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature First, what can be said about the immortality of the soul from the viewpoint of natural philosophy, excluding revelation? Notwithstanding the title of his treatise, Pomponazzi argues repeatedly and persuasively that, at least according to Aristotelian doctrine, our intellect completely depends on the body for all its functions, including thought. Imageless, disembodied thought is therefore impossible.
But no one trained in Aristotelian philosophy could have failed to comprehend the implications. The first is that it depends on our body as the subject in which it inheres, which would imply that it can only exist as a part of the body. The second is that it depends on the body as its object —that is, it needs the phantasms that are produced by an embodied perceptual faculty the common sense in order to think. Thus, although our intellect depends on the body for the supply of images that are required for thinking, it does not depend on the body for its continued existence.
And because the intellective soul does not depend on the body for its continued existence, it can survive its separation from the body. Useful as this distinction between the two ways in which our intellective soul can be said to depend on the body may have been, it was precarious from the start. Hay 11, in Cassirer E. And clearly, if there can be no thought without imagination, it does not help to maintain that the intellect does not require the body as the subject in which it inheres.
A disembodied soul would be utterly incapable of functioning in the absence of phantasms, and could therefore not continue to exist, at least not in any meaningful sense. Instead I will turn to the question of how Aristotelian philosophers accounted for the relation between thought and images after the publication of this treatise, starting with one of the first philosophers to respond to Pomponazzi, Agostino Nifo.
Gilson E. To this end, Nifo also considers what Aquinas and Averroes had said on the matter. In his reading, as we have seen, the human soul is able to survive the corruption of our body because it has one activity which it is able to perform without needing the body—intellectual thought. This is not the only possible reading of the passage, however. Averroes , one of the most famous commentators on the works of Aristotle, also read the passage as affirming the immortality of the soul. In his view, the only way for any intellect to be immortal and eternal is for it never to be embodied in the first place.
The separate part of the soul Aristotle spoke about, he argues, is therefore neither the whole human soul, nor any one of its parts. Instead, it is a separate, unique, and divine entity. But by the time he responded to Pomponazzi, he had become convinced that Averroes misunderstood Aristotle on this point. Taylor R. Mahoney E. FragenzurBewertung des Jahrhunderts, Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 31 Berlin: Since the relation to the body is lost after death, the soul does not survive under the aspect expressed here: qua soul, it cannot exist without a body to inform.
Because the act of understanding is not exercised in any bodily organ, that which is soul while it informs the body can survive as intellect, even when the body is corrupted. As long as the soul informs the body, it is both soul and intellect. Once the soul ceases to be the act of the body, it also ceases to be soul although it remains as intellect. His interpretation has the additional benefit of being able to explain the apparently conflicting passages in Aristotle concerning the immortality of the soul. Rather than being equivocal or even inconsistent, Aristotle has in mind the soul qua soul in some places, and the soul qua intellect in others.
If what remains after death is an intellect or intelligence, it must continue to be able to engage in thought. Nifo, Agostino, De immortalitate humanae anlmae libellus adversus Petrum Pomponatium, ed. Valverde J. R Milan: Perler D. With the distinction in place, however, Nifo is able to limit the necessary connection to soul qua soul.
But he still needs, as he clearly recognises, to offer a positive account of how the soul qua intellect can continue to function in the absence of phantasms. In that case, Nifo argues, it is still less bad minus malum and less contrary to the way we argue in natural philosophy minus contra physicas rationes to hold the view that our intellect is immortal. For even if we were forced to admit that the separated soul is in an idle state otlosum because it can no longer understand anything, this would still be preferable to saying that the soul dies with the body.
More to the point, there is no need to agree with Pomponazzi that our soul qua intellect is unable to think without phantasms. Nifo, De immortalitate animae Nifo, De Immortalitate animae This shows that thought without phantasms is at least logically possible, even if it does not prove such thought will actually take place. One arises from our experience of a free will, where we can intellectually want something different from what our bodily appetite desires. The other and more interesting experience he refers to is our ability to understand the universal itself, and not just the universal in the particular—for example, when we think of humanity in general without having a particular human being in mind.
Nifo takes this to imply that there are some thoughts that are almost free from recourse to phantasms already in this life. In the final part of his rebuttal of Pomponazzi, Nifo discusses a series of difficulties connected to disembodied cognition. Although Nifo admits that according to Aristotle it cannot, he thinks that Aristotle was wrong on this point. Moreover he proposes that the possibility of disembodied learning is consistent with the broader Aristotelian framework. Spruit L. Leiden - Boston: Nifo, De immor- talitate animae The phantasms are not absolutely necessary.
They are only necessary per accidens, and they are a mediate rather than an immediate cause. To the extent that Nifo is successful in rebutting Pomponazzi, it comes at a cost. What is lost in the many pages in which Nifo develops his arguments is the idea that phantasms make a positive contribution to human thought. True, they are a mediate cause for the production of intelligible species, while the soul is embodied, but that seems to exhaust their function.
Whereas Aquinas had still claimed that embodied cognition is the preferred mode of human cognition, for Nifo embodied and disembodied cognition seem to be at least on par with one another. One might argue that this lack of attention to the positive contribution of phantasms to human thought was to be expected. Compare Thomas Aquinas, Summa Tkeologiae ia, q. Nifo, De Immortalitate animae 96 and Although this a valid point, it remains true that Pomponazzi changed the terms of the debate on the role of imagination in cognition. In order to show this, I will turn now to one of the most important Aristotelians of the sixteenth century, the Jesuit philosopher Francisco Suarez.
South J. But accounting for the reason why human beings have been created with this necessary connection between imagination and intellect is a more difficult challenge for Suarez, since he rejects the reasons Aquinas gave. There is no a priori need for a phantasm from an epistemological point of view. Suarez also rejects the alternative explanation presented byjohn Duns Scotus c. As Suarez rightly states, this is not so much an argument that explains why we need phantasms, but rather a stipulation of a necessary connection, with no reason given.
Madrid: Furthermore, when the intellect operates it moves and draws with it the imagination. And from here originates the association concomitantia of the operations of these powers, an association that is not essential, but proceeds from our [current, SdB] condition; for in the separated soul and in the bodies that rise again this dependence of the intellect on the imagination will not be present.
The fact that our intellect cannot function without the imagination in our current embodied state is explicitly attributed to the imperfection of our current state. Neither the separated soul nor the soul that has acquired the glorified body after its resurrection has any use for phantasms. There, Suarez argues that phantasms are needed only because the soul in its embodied state is bound to sensation, and they are no longer needed in a disembodied state: The reason is clear: for the soul is the principle of understanding, and the things understood, together with the intelligible species, remain within it; hence nothing is lacking for it to understand.
You say: sense is lacking, on which cognition depends. Perfectio etiam imaginationis prodest intellectui, quia quando melior est apprehensio imaginativae, tanto meliores species imprimuntur in intellectum; et intellectus etiam operans movet et secum trahit imaginationem. Suarez, De anima, , d. Nevertheless, when the sensitive powers are taken away, this dependency is no longer there.
Hence his view that the separated soul's cognition is in no way inferior to the embodied soul's cognition. In fact, it is superior. Second, because it has an even better understanding of the things it already knew or could have known when embodied. This is because in its separated state, it is not distracted by bodily phenomena and it receives intelligible species of a higher quality. For Aquinas, by contrast, the most natural state for the soul, indeed the only natural state for the soul, is a state in which it is embodied.
Dices: deest sensus a quo in cognitione pendet. Suarez, De anima , Suarez, De anima , in, d. Suarez, De anima , , d. But cf. Pegis A. Or, in other words, at the cost of weakening the soul-body unity to such an extent that he is but a very small step away from a mind-body dualism.
Whereas in Nifo, embodied and disembodied thought were considered to be on a par with one another, Suarez takes the further step of elevating disembodied cognition to the preferred mode, at least in terms of accuracy. Concluding Remarks This, then, is the intellectual legacy of Pietro Pomponazzi. In other words, one could either move in the direction of a Cartesian or a Hobbesian approach.
Cambridge - New York: vol. Schouls P. Proportion, Images, and the Activity of Thinking Berkeley: Jones H. London - Beccles: , iv. Bibliography Nifo Agostino, De immortaiitate humanae animae tlbettus adversus Petrum Pompona- tium, ed. Aristotle, De amnia Castellote S. Cambridge - New York: Di Martino C. Harvey E. Hasse D. Fragen zur Bewertung des London - Beccles: Leijenhorst C. Approaches to Truth Dublin: Pine M.
Radical Philosopher of the Renaissance Padua: Sepper D. Leiden - Boston: - Steneck N. Veenstra J. Mashaallah, and Ps. In the domain of astronomy, speculative activities involving the elaboration of hypotheses and geometrical demonstrations were no longer pursued. Corresponding visual figures, no longer crucial to geometrical demonstrations, became dispensable. When they were included in or added to verbal expositions, this was primarily in order to summarise and enhance what had previously been explained.
When discussing lunar eclipses in his Astronomy , for example, Hyginus fl. By way of this theory you are able to know that neither the sun nor the moon reaches the stars, while nevertheless circling through the zodiacal circle. Le Boeuffle A. Paris: vol. Willis J. Leipzig: vol. Thus, in order to posit the Arctic Circle, Astronomia made two points for drawing a circle, one marking the center and the other the circumference. Itaque in ipso mundi cardine posui clarius sidus atque ab eo ad Draconis caput [ Instructions for drawing a lettered figure follow.
But whatever style of argumentation Roman or early medieval cosmographers chose to adhere to, they showed little interest in reproducing geometrical demonstrations. Rather, they relied on persuasive procedures for transmitting results of former demonstrations, with or without the help of visual figures. Within this genre the universe was described in a non-mathematical fashion and, as hypothetical geometrical accounts about the universe receded into the background, summary physical explanations came to prevail.
Pursued primarily in monastic and clerical contexts, astronomy was rudimentary and practice-oriented. Astronomical texts dating from that period are centered on the identification of constellations and the knowledge of their times of rise 8 Macrobius, Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis, ed. Armisen-Marchetti M. A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science 6 ; ead. Diagrammatise he Strukturen und die Dynamisierung von Wissen und Erfahrung Wiesbaden: ; ead.
Indeed,while the importance of geometry was generally acknowledged, few authors were able to pursue mathematical astronomy. Aside from the inclusion of some planetary astronomy, twelfth- century descriptions of the universe differed from older ones above all in that they exhibited a higher level of technicality. Geometrical representations of the universe were described in more detail; corresponding demonstrations were summarised; and the expression 'figura geometrica' occasionally replaced the otherwise prevailing terms figura!
While historians have paid much attention to the concept of imagination in relation to theories of knowledge, references to this mental faculty and activity in twelfth- and early thirteenth- century astronomical expositions have been neglected. Further, Liber de orbe, ch. For this long version of De orbe , which circulated in the ii4oties, cf. Obrist B. For its short, printed version, cf. These hitherto little studied documents include both cosmographical and more technical astronomical expositions, most of which became known to the Latin world toward the mid-twelfth century.
One of these versions came to be known through the Liber de orbe, attributed to Masha'allah fl. Another version is to be found in the De imaginatione spere et circulorum eius or De recta imagina- tione , attributed to Thabit ibn Qurra in its thirteenth-century manuscripts. Finally, a third text of this type has been integrated into a practice-oriented document, a set of rules and explanations about astronomical tables. Maqalah ft hay'at al- c alam by Ibn al-Haytham. Roshdi Rashed suggested that the author of this work was Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham active in Baghdad ca.
Ibn alHaytkam, London: vol. II, esp. Figura totius mundi est sperica [ Millas ed. Stephen added an extensive commentary and provided this new treatise with the title Liber Mamonls. For this, as well as a sixteenth-century translation, cf.
Études sur Plotin
Aside from the Latin manuscripts mentioned by Langermann, there is also: Liineburg, Ratsbiicherei, Misc. I owe this reference to Dr. David Juste Munich. North Leiden - Boston - Cologne: ; ; id. This has since been replaced by Grupe D. I am grateful to Dr. Grupe for having made available his edition and translation of the Liber Mamonls. But he goes beyond the Almagest in relating them to the surfaces of the solid, bodily spheres of the natural philosopher, the existence of which he takes as equally established.
When it comes to describing and defining the form of this body, this is done in terms of an imaginary geometrical construct [ The learned named this point the center of the sphere. Cum enim astutiores horum proposite rei veritatem nulla possent invenire ratione, hctum quoddam et violentum solis radiis concesserunt dicentes eorum maiori impulsu retrogrados fieri planetas quasi pos- sint amplius solis radii quam ipsarum in quibus volvuntur sempiterni cursus sperarum. Spera autem, ut a maioribus accepimus, corporalis forma est quam circuit superficies, cuius in medio punctus est a quo in diversa tendentes si egrediantur plures linee que terminantur in eiusdem spere superhcie equalem ean- demque omnes longitudinem sortiuntur.
It describes nine heavenly spheres and the movements of these nine concentric celestial bodies around their poles. On that circle the same point revolves steadily without any deviation. The validity of this common statement is proved by most truthful arguments in the Book of Geometry. For every plane that divides and delimits adjoining spheres produces a circle on any of them.
For if we imagine a plane on a line that runs through the center of a star and the center of the world to be extended such as it divides the whole world, this section will produce quocumque imaginarias duxeris lineas, equales eas advertes longitudine. Ibn al-Haytham, On the Configuration of the World, ch. Langermann transl. Aujac G. Paris: For the Latin translation: Mogenet J. Morelon R. None of the circles which we will be discussing in this book subsist in heaven by the nature of things; rather, they are imaginary.
For the human mind has the marvelous faculty to conceive by imagination that which is not, thereby preparing with [the help of] the verisimilar the way to an understanding of that which is. In order, therefore, to investigate the hidden and intricate position of the celestial spheres, to know the place and the size of the sun and of the other stars on the surface of the heavenly spheres, the ancients imagined circles, the functioning of which the penetrating power of the soul, upon wishing [to do so], recognised.
They are to be imagined as follows. Id ita esse ut aiunt verissi- mis ostenditur in iibro geometrie rationibus. Unaqueque etenim superficies que speras invicem iunctas dividit et terminat facit in singulis earum circulum. Quoniam igitur cum spere moventur super fixos polos, quisque punctus in earum superficie circulum circi- nat, faciet unaqueque stellarum que in eis sunt in spera circulum per suum centrum.
Huius circuli si imaginaveris augmentari superficiem usque dum totum secet mundum et dividat, faciet superficie alti celi imaginarium circulum [ The circle representing the ecliptic is the subject of the following chapter, The Orb of the Ecliptic. In it the same circles tended to suggest almost physical realities, an inference Martianus Capella had been eager to avoid. This is, however, not the case. In rerum subsistentes natura nulli habentur in celo cir- culi de quibus hoc in libro dicturi sumus, sed imaginarii. Intellectus enim humani facultas mirabilis que non sunt imaginatione constituit quo ad eorum que sunt intelligentiam veri similibus paret viam.
Ad indagandam igitur occultam subtilemque celestium sperarum positionem, ad cognoscendum solis aliammque stellarum locum et magnitudinem in superficiebus celestium sperarum vetustiores circulos imaginati sunt quorum opera que perspicax animi vigor desiderabat agnovit. De ascendente et descensionibus Vallicrosa J. In the Madrid manuscript, a space has been left for a figure that was never drawn.
Here, it is presented as offering a sensible starting point for a reverse, abstractive imaginative process. In other words, it depicts circles that are both imaginarii and imaginabiles. In the Liber Mamonls, there are other figures of the De figura mundi that do not correspond precisely to the text they accompany. Grupe gives a detailed discussion of the problem of visual figures Grupe, The Latin Reception, Introduction Stephen thus opposes oral teaching to written transmission, pointing out that the latter does not allow the use of visual models which involve small sticks for representing the axes of moving spheres and circles.
Instead, circles have to be imagined. Some among them were interested in the role of imagination, while others limited themselves to describing the structuring elements of the sphere. However, another version of De orbe circulated in the context of the Norman courts of Normandy and Sicily as early as the s. Cosmologie, physique du ciel et astronomie. It is entitled De circuits et Uriels etpunctis and may originally have been part of a Treatise on the Armillary Sphere by a student of Isaac Israeli d.
This is not, however, the case in the short version, where Chapter Ten interrupts a series of expositions on the sun and the moon. For the manuscripts, cf. Barcelona: vol. However, it is a composite treatise. For the chapter series of either Latin version, cf. For through an understanding intellectu of those circles and chords and points, the form [forma of the orb remains in the mind mente. The short version of De orbe reads: Therefore the first circle goes out from the east to mid-heaven, to the west, to the heaven below the terrestrial orb, to the east [ And of the three chords there is a chord which goes out from the east to the middle of the earth, to the west [ And points are the places where the circles are cut off, of the extremities of the three chords, and they are six.
And the point of the earth, which is the middle of the world, is the seventh point [ Sermo de circuits et cordis ac punctis 1 Scias quod qui intelligit illos circulos et cordas et puncta intellectu, intelligit qualitatem orbis, quoniam intellectu horum circulorum et cordarum et punctorum stat forma orbis in mente. Cum ergo erigitur in mente, tunc iam cadit in alchy alchi. Et punctum terre, quod est medium mundi, est septimum punctum [ De circuiis et line is et punctis 1 Qui perfecte circulos lineasque et puncta percipiet absque dubio naturam firmamenti ipsius comprehenderet.
Formam namque eius in intellectu suo imaginabit. Ratione quippe comprehenditur cum in mente alicuius ymaginatur. Septimus est punctus centri terre quod totius mundi centrum est [ Nuremberg: ms Conv. Et hec est forma eius. For this manuscript, cf. Hughes B. The letters are missing in the edition. For the understanding fahml of these circles, and points, and chords is a prerequisite for the constitution takwim of the image sura of the orb in imagination dihn. And if it is received waqa c a by imagination dihn , it is conceived waqa c a by reason c aql. In the Arabic text the role of imagination is more prominent than in the long Latin version, and the short one does not mention imagination at all: once the structure of the sphere is understood, the faculty of imagination receives it as an image surat , and from there it reaches reason.
Unfortunately, the succinct Arabic description of the cognitive process makes it difficult to trace its precise doctrinal background and, thence, meaning. Thus, aside from the brevity of the Arabic exposition, the translators had to struggle with the polysemy of the key Arabic terms relating to cognition. The translator of Chapter Ten of the short version, Gerard of Cremona, tends to respect the repetition of the relevant Arabic verbs and nouns. He uses the verb intelligere twice, the noun intellectus twice, and mens twice.
For the manuscript, cf. Ahlwardt W. Paris 7, Paris and Hala Annani. It concerns a difficulty encountered in drawing a two- dimensional representation of the sphere. Since two of its lettered points V and Z cannot be represented in the visual figure, they have to be imagined: I therefore turn the circle and write A in the east, B in the south, C in the west, and D in the north. I therefore say that it is the circle of the horizon.
I therefore imagine V in mid-heaven, and Z in the middle of the heavens that are below the earth. For it is not possible to write it [the letter] within the figure, for the figure is a surface and that which is being spoken of is a sphere. Dico ergo quod iste est circulus orizontis. Imaginabor ergo in medio celo V, et in medio celo eorum qui sunt sub terra Z. The same word that was previously used for the imagined form of the sphere with its circles, chords, and points now designates the material image, swra 45 As a matter of fact, the Arabic text uses the same very dense formula for announcing visual figures throughout.
The Latin versions of De orbe vary these announcements, and the translator of the short one, Gerard of Cremona, frequently differentiates between figura and forma. The first connotes a material object, while the latter implies intelligibility. Its Latin manuscripts, which do not predate the thirteenth century, attribute it to Thabit ibn Qurra ca. All of these have been edited by Francis Carmody.
Its introductory paragraph gives a cosmographical overview from a physical point of view, locating the imaginary observer at the central point of the spherical earth. Qurra Berkeley - Los Angeles: i For the manuscripts, see id. Carmody lists close to one hundred manuscripts. Morelon, Thabit Ibn Qurra.
Then follows a variant of the first part of the text that forms Chapters Ten and Sixteen in De orbe : there are six points of reference on the uppermost surface of the world, while the seventh coincides with the center of the sphere. Its center is a point, which is in the middle of the earth and said to be the center of the earth. We also understand the earth to be like the center of the world, for it is in the middle, like an indivisible body in comparison to the size of the world. We also understand the world to be immobile and at rest. Therefore, we who reside, so to speak, in the center and not on the surface of the earth, understand to have posited on the uppermost surface of the world, all in all, a first oriental point, a second occidental, a third oriental [ The second is the meridian circle, and the third, the circle of the horizon.
Intelligamus etiam terram esse quasi centrum mundi cum ipsa sit in medio et tamquam corpus indivisibile ad comparationem mag- nitudinis mundi. Intelligamus etiam mundum esse immobilem et quietum. Qurra The first of these gives a more detailed account of the structure of the universe, made in terms of axes, poles, and imaginary great circles, together with their intersections.
All in all, circles have to be imagined. Also, the axes, poles, equidistant great circles, and the zodiacal circle must be imagined from the very beginning— presumably of astronomical studies. Moreover, the world as a whole must be thought of as being presently formed by its Creator. It would seem that the main source of inspiration was an astronomical compilation, rather than a theoretical exposition on mental faculties. Habemus quoque eorum axes et circulos equidistantes et suorum polorum magnos circulos, habemus etiam quartam zodiacum cum suis apendiciis non minus ceteris efficacem.
Hee sunt que introducendis primo imaginanda occummt. Sit etiam alter circulus per utrumque punctum meridiei [ Accordingly, manuscripts of this text neither include any reference to constructing a figure nor the figure itself. Investigantibus astronomie rationes and Investigantibus astronomiam The descriptions of the structuring geometrical elements of spheres and the corresponding references to imagination we have surveyed are all associated with general astronomical expositions.
In these, the respective enumerations of geometrical elements have been stripped of all references to imagination, thus testifying once again to the fact that we are dealing with a school text that was worked over again and again. InternationalJournal for Transfer of Knowledge 3 , here: The text gives the times of solar eclipses for ,, and Again, in its initial section the compiler omitted instructions for drawing a visual figure of the sphere, yet chose to retain the visual figure itself, which is but the first of a series of diagrams. These spheres and their parts are the seven planetary spheres, the eighth sphere of the fixed stars, and the ninth, all-encompassing sphere.
However, the reference does not occur in the immediate vicinity of the introductory section. It is mentioned in a chapter on establishing horoscopes, and specifically the degree of the ascendant, with the help of hours of equal length given in tables, and hours given on the astrolabe, of unequal length.
Circulus equinoctialis semper [ Cum ergo totus in die naturali, id est in xxim horis directis, oriatur et ipse in ccclx gradus divida- tur, in qualibet hora directa xv gradus illius circuli orientur; ergo, quotiens xv gradus illius circuli a principio diei sunt orti, tot hore directe sunt preterite. Auctores itaque astrolabii compositores invenerunt in astrolabio almeri, qui semper equaliter movetur in astrolabio [ In astronomical chapters and treatises, references to imagination occur in this context. This paper attempts to: a Set forth the aesthetic terms and principles involved in the Pythagorean theory of the construction of the universe.
The two central Pythagorean concepts of harmony, symmetry, and their relationship to beauty will be discussed. On the basis of this analysis, it will be argued that the concept of beauty played a fundamental role in both the Pythagorean and Plotinian models of the structure of the universe. Not only general concepts as the concept of the beautiful, the goodness of God, the impact of love for attracting the soul in higher realms or the importance of the free decision of the will, but even the infinite character of the ascent of the soul towards God can be named.
Beside of these similarities even important differences must be stated, namely the role of Christ and the sacramental life of the church. The most important point, however, seems to be the different concept of mystical ascent: while for Plotinus there can be a true union during the ekstasis, Gregory denies exactly that stressing the infinite character of each ascent. What this article proposes, by tracing the genealogy of each of these analogies back to Ficino, Plotinus, Eckhart and Pseudo-Dionysius, is that the "Task of the Translator" represents the most Neoplatonic essay in Benjamin's work.
Swansea, Classical Pr. Concerning neoplatonic views of the personal daimon protecting spirit and evil daimones, specifically in the writings of Plotinus and Porphyry. What is the scope of Plotinus' geometrical analogy in this passage? Cleary, Aldershot Hampshire , Brookfield Vt.
In Kindi's doctrine of knowledge the Aristotelian background is significantly influenced also by the Neoplatonic epistemology. An analysis of four passages that belong to the Metaphysics of the great philosophical encyclopaedia Al-Sifa. Baltes, "Il Plotino di Matthias Baltes. D'Ancona Costa, Einaudi, , p. De Smet, M. Sebti et G. Sassi, Pisa, Ed. In appendix: translation of Plotinus' argument against those who contend that the Soul is not one and that no Soul exists beyond the soul of the universe. Analysis of the book by Imre Toth, Aristotele e i fondamenti assiomatici della geometria Review of R.
Arnou, Il desiderio di Dio nella filosofia di Plotino , trad. Trotta et al.. The Platonic ladder of Eros and the Plotinian ascent to the One are helpful models to understand Kazantzakis's poetic hierarchies in his Salvatores Dei and other works. The difference lies in Kazantzakis's adherence to the modern framework of poetic creativity. Still, he remains closer to the Neoplatonic vision of ontic hypostases but without the Christian religious deontology. This modified Neoplatonic model found in pseudo-Dionysius reached its apex in the deontic hierarchies of Ioannis of Klimakos in the sixth century.
Kazantzakis replaces the conception of the religious ladder with a hierarchical order of duties aiming ultimately at the salvation of God. Recent publications on Marsilio Ficino have thrown new light on the role Plotinus' philosophy and Neoplatonism played in the Renaissance movement for the development of the arts and the revival of classical philosophy in Italy.
While not "a mere antiquarian revival," Ficino's work extended the implications of the philosophical ideas of Plato and Plotinus beyond the special interests of the Alexandrian Neoplatonists Proclus, Themistius and Simplicius.
The purpose of my paper is to assess the impact that Plotinus' philosophy and its Platonic antecedents had on the Italian Renaissance as original movement and as reaction to the dominant Aristotelianism of late Scholasticism. Moutsopoulos and M. Protopapas-Marneli eds , Athens, Academy of Athens, , p.
L'apophatisme du lieu ", Philosophical Inquiry 26, 4 , , p. The Plotinian scholar, John Bussanich, has noted that the issue of classifying mystical union with the One consists in deciding between either theistic union or monistic identity. For advocates of theistic union, during mystical union the soul retains its identity and can be distinguished from the One; for advocates of monistic identity, during the union the soul loses its identity and becomes absorbed into the One.
Both camps, however, believe that noetic activity is transcended in the union. In contradistinction to the theistic union and monistic identity views, I argue for what I call a mediated union position in Plotinus's doctrines whereby the noetic part of the soul - understood as a multi-faceted cognitive capacity - is not transcended in union with the One. This article analyzes the status of passive potentiality of prime matter and sensible objects in Plotinus' Enneads.
It aims at offering a new interpretation of treatise 25 and at proposing a reconstruction of Plotinus' notion of change in the sensible realm that illustrates both his critique of Aristotle's notion of substantial change and his acceptance of Aristotle's view of qualitative change. This article analyzes the status of passive potentiality of prime matter and sensible objects in Plotinus's Enneads.
It aims at offering a new interpretation of treatise 25 and at proposing a reconstruction of Plotinus's notion of change in the sensible realm that illustrates both his critique of Aristotle's notion of substantial change and his acceptance of Aristotle's view of qualitative change. This article investigates the logical connections between Plotin's metaphysics and his aesthetical thinking in the larger context of the Greek philosophy paradigm. The text of the article proves that Plotin submits a change of perspective in the aesthetic Greek thinking by using at least three themes of reflection: the analysis of the conditions in which the experience of beauty takes place, the conception of the beauty as brightness, and the conceptual determination of an inspired thinking, that is able to create new forms.
Theurgy was no longer the exclusive prerogative of a hereditary caste, but became the heritage of the whole of mankind. Plotinus's formulation of the problem of the individual should not be reduced to the question of whether or not one can accept forms of individuals. First, if Plotinus does indeed posit an intelligible foundation of individuality, there are no grounds to identify this foundation with a Form: it must rather be considered a logos. Second, we must, in addition to this intelligible "principle of distinction", allow for a sensible "principle of individuation": the living body.
This latter's compatibility with the other two seems problematic, so that the real difficulty may lie in this tension, in Plotinus' thought, between an ontological and an ethical concept of the individual. Aubry et F. Ildefonse, Paris, Vrin, , p. Ildefonse, Paris, Vrin, , Casteigt dir. Notamment chez Aristote et chez Plotin. On the basis of the study of Petric's philosophy it is clear that his key theses follow the entire neo-Platonic tradition and Plotinus' philosophy. Plotinus' philosophy, in view of the way it defines the relation to the ultimate principle--the One, has usually been described as a kind of mysticism in the history of philosophy.
Since the links between Plotinus' and Petric's philosophy of the One are incontestable, the issue regarding the presence of some elements of mysticism in Petric's philosophy seems to be legitimate. Se intenta comprobar si el Zeus de Fidias ejemplifica realmente una teckne de este tipo, analizando la consistencia del ejemplo y su coherencia con las consideraciones de Plotino sobre la belleza y las artes.
L'idea di una matrice orfico-pitagorica di Empedocle sembra frutto di un'interpretazione neoplatonica, ed emerge particolarmente nella lettura plotiniana e porfiriana del suo pensiero. Di Pasquale Barbanti e C. The author describes Sadhana as follow: "For Plotinus Philosophy is a way of life, what in India is called sadhana, a way leading the philosopher to a vision of, and union with, what he calls The One.
Reality is one, the good Plotinus. Brahman, the one is existence, consciousness, conscious -force and bliss Aurobindo and, unlike Plotinus's one has self-knowledge and will. For Plotinus the spontaneous emanation from the one is first intelligence followed by soul. World and individual, from which comes the world. Matter is without form and the source of evil. Aurobindo says the world is purposeful willed self manifestation of Brahman. For Plotinus the individual can be united with the one and matter is abandoned.
Sri Aurobindo speaks of individual union with the Brahman and the evolution of a spiritual society. Matter, potentially conscious, will fully become so, be aware of and remember God. A mediados del siglo 20, J. Tsimbidaros dir. Despre materie si rau The Polemics of Plotinus against the Gnostics. Proclus's complex arguments developed in the context of his theory of evil often seem to reflect various earlier discussions of this topic.
Above all, his predecessor Iamblichus seems to be a major source for his concept of evil. This becomes plausible when we attempt to outline Iamblichus's own philosophy of evil as revealed in such works as De mysteriis or De communi mathematica scientia. Particularly the latter work has not been sufficiently exploited in this respect, although the similarities with Proclus are significant. This essay discusses the mode of the existence of evil, the causation of evil and its relation to being according to Iamblichus. Moreover, comparison of Iamblichus's doctrines with those of his predecessors Plotinus and Porphyry reveals the design of his concept of evil as apparently directed at Plotinus.
Falcioni] ", in Hegel e il neoplatonismo. Atti del Convegno internazionale di Cagliari Aprile A cura di G. Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di filosofia e teoria delle scienze umane, 3, Cagliari, Edizioni AV, , Schelling's Thought ", transl. Selecting the manifold aspects which could be reflected on in this field, I want to make plausible as a transcendental analogy to Plotinus' concept of self-knowledge Schelling's requirement for a raising-up and transformation of the finite 'I' into the form of the Absolute, whose central features converge with the goal of the Plotinian self-transformation of thought into a timeless self-thinking and its ground.
Von P. BENZ, H. Mojsisch Hrsg. This essay explores the aesthetics of Plotinus and Foucault. A single focus and four problematics define this paper. The human subject is the focus. The problematics are the specter of the isolated soul and subject, the relation between art and truth, the notion that ontological and axiological positions are constructed recourse to an aesthetics of the subject, which means art and aesthetics play a central role in the overcoming of the fallenness of the soul and the isolation of the self. Plotinus and Foucault make extensive use of the aesthetic symbols and techniques which affirm a philosophical ethos that valorizes the human subject as a work of art.
It is the purpose of this paper to offer a partial explanation of how Plotinus expanded upon Plato's theory of beauty. The author shows that Plotinus offers a unique interpretation of the Platonic notion of "mimesis". He also gives an original interpretation of some important faculties, like imagination phantasia and judgment. Berchman and J. Finamore eds. Finamore and R. Berchman eds. Sankt Augustin, Academia, , p.
The centrality of Brentano's and Husserl's theory concerning the intentionality of mental acts is well established in contemporary philosophy. However, questions regarding Brentano's views of the intentionality of intellect and sense perception in Aristotle, and subsequent justifications of a phenomenological or Husserlian reading of intentionality in Plotinus require further examination. It shall be proposed that there are significant differences between Aristotle and Plotinus, and Brentano and Husserl, concerning sense perception, intellect, and intentionality. It shall also be suggested that in contrast to Brentano and Husserl, Aristotle and Plotinus accepted the intentionality of mental or noetic objects but not that of physical or aesthetic ones.
Where Aristotle argues for a theory of intentional identity; Plotinus proposes a theory of intentional complexity. The reason why we encounter different notions of intentionality rest upon their different assessments of the intentional activity of Nous: When Aristotle's intellect intentionally touches and sees its objects there is an identity between thinker and object.
When Plotinus's intellect sees and touches its objects there is complexity, a distinction between thinker and object. Why this is so is clear. Aristotle has no principle prior to Nous while Plotinus does, the one. Consequently, for Plotinus intellect contains a plurality of forms. Hence, there is no absolute unity in Nous. Aristotle's Nous is identical with noesis and this pure activity of thinking is the highest being, an absolute unity. Here Plotinus working from the principle of the prior simplicity of one to intellect cannot accede to an identity notion of intentionality.
He can only acknowledge a complexity theory of intentionality. Aristotle, on the other hand lacking a principle of prior simplicity, which means there is no one prior to Nous, identifies the best ousia with the highest form of cognition, noesis via energeia.
The incident recounted in Porphyry's Life of Plotinus 10 does not show Plotinus' lack of interest in the gods, but rather illustrates his attitude that we must allow the divine to come to us rather than seek it out. Cultic worship is not necessary for this to happen. Plotinus, Enn. Trabattoni eds , Leiden, Brill, , p.
This paper studies Sentence 16 of Porphyry's Pathways to the Intelligible. It is argued that it should be understood against the background of Plotinus' discussions of the similes of the waxen block and the aviary from Plato's Theaetetus. The first part of the paper concentrates on Plotinus' reception of these similes. In the second part of the paper Plotinus' discussions of the two similes are used to shed light on Sentence 16, in particular on the term procheirisis. Furthermore it is argued that Porphyry does not reject Plotinus' claim that, pace Aristotle, intellection does not require imaging.
Aristotle recognized the power of materialist attempts to identify simple material principles underlying natural phenomena and to pursue material explanations, but he nonetheless insisted on the need for teleological explanations in addition. Caught between the implausibility of the materialist attempt to account for the emergence of functional forms and their regular reproduction, and the idea that gaps in a causal account needed to be filled in with explanatorily basic teleological components, some ancient thinkers turned to mechanics for inspiration.
Mechanical devices offered a way that material processes could produce goal-directed results : natural philosophers could draw analogies to working artifacts, and thus avoid the imputation that special powers or natures were needed to produce goal-directed results. The science of mechanics offered one way of invoking teleology without resorting to irreducible powers or unanalyzable natures as efficient causes.
Bettetini e F. This article examines Pierre Hadot's rejection of the "purely spiritual" and "transcendent" philosophy of Plotinus as a viable philosophy of life. Despite an initial attraction to the Enneads, Hadot eventually concluded that the mystical quest of Plotinus was unrealistic and unacceptable because it required one to forsake the experience of the spiritual and ineffable in the concrete and the practical.
I argue that Hadot's critical assessment does not adequately appreciate the "descent vector" that is integral to Plotinus's conception of the One. His mysticism requires reference not only to the efficacy of 'intellect' and the One but also to embodiment and creative participation in the everyday affairs of worldly existence. Plotinus cannot abandon the implications of the bi-directional dynamic of the One as it generates the richly diverse, beautiful cosmos. The profile of proper living extends across the ontological spectrum, observing the demarcations and dynamic affiliations, from the One to concrete materiality.
Boudouris and D. Kalimitzis eds , Ionia Publications, Athens, , In Sein und Zeit Heidegger's understanding of time and temporality remains in direct connection with the tradition inaugurated by Plotinus, Leibniz and Kant. East theosophy and West philosophy have some fundamental topics in common.
One of these topics is the unity of existence which is one of the main subjects in Upanishads and appears frequently in Greek philosophy, especially the views of thinkers like Anaxagoras, Plato and Plotinus. Hindu thinkers and Greek philosophers have much in common in the subject of art and beauty. The prevailing idea of mimesis as the essence and nature of art in views of philosophers like Plato, Aristocrats and in particular, Plotinus appears in Hindu theosophy as the Sadrsya. Likewise, the Sadrsya means resemblance and mimic but the one which concerns heavenly images and upon which rely asceticism, worshipping and particularly, yoga.
This particular approach is largely connected with Plotinus's ideas in the Enneads. He regards art as the mimic of the sensible images and represents moral and spiritual methods for realizing it. This paper is a comparative study of the views of Ananda Koomara Swamy in explaining and interpreting the theory of Sadrsya and that of the Plotinus regarding art and the spiritual divine nature of it.
L'esame delle discussioni e delle polemiche seguite alla diffusione degli scritti di Plotino contribuisce ad arricchire la conoscenza della filosofia del III sec. Alcune osservazioni intorno alla percezione e alla conoscenza", in Studi sull'anima in Plotino , a cura di Riccardo Chiaradonna, Bibliopolis, Napoli, , While he rejects some aspects of Platonic psychology, such as the fluidity of its hierarchies, his departures from pure Aristotelianism enable him to use emanationist language far more freely than does Thomas Aquinas, his former student.
This becomes clear upon examination of the disagreements between Albert and Thomas on differential psychology and on the soul as subject of the faculties. Dans le cours de ce travail, l'A. An examination of the fall of the soul in the philosophy of Plotinus. A distinction is made between the soul in its descended state and the soul in its fallen state. The soul falls as a result of choosing false unity in its descended state. The fact that the soul is confused when it chooses a false unity raises interesting questions regarding moral culpability and human freedom in Plotinus.
The human freedom required for moral culpability exists only at a metaphysical midpoint between emanative form and emanated matter. An extended treatment of unity in the three primary hypostases of Plotinus metaphysical system, namely the One, Nous and Soul. An examination of Aristotle's understanding of and response to the relationship of being and unity in Plato.
Both Aristotle and Plotinus see Platonism as engendering a metaphysical hierarchy where unity is prior to being and being is prior to particulars. Aristotle makes being and unity non-hierarchical predicates of particulars, whereas Plotinus re-establishes the Platonic metaphysical hierarchy.
Aristotle's approach to substance causes problems for the relationship of being and unity in the Unmoved Mover, and Plotinus criticises Aristotle's first principle on these grounds. The movement towards a principle of unity that is beyond being, implicit in Plato's Republic, can be seen as emerging through the Middle Platonic tradition and culminating in Plotinus' theory of the One. Freedom in the context of emanation is also examined. Dixsaut eds , Burlington, Ashgate, One of the most important features of Plotinus' ethical system is his doctrine of the union between soul and intellect: this union is the goal of purification procedures, the summit of dialectic practice and the basis of mystical experience.
But, being inferior to intellect, how is it possible for the soul to achieve this union? This paper is an attempt at searching for the Plotinian explanation for this problem. According to Plotinus, it is possible for the soul of the philosopher to follow a way of ascension towards the superior realities.
This way is composed of two parts. The first one goes from the sensible world to the intellect and the second, from the intellect to the One. Consciousness for Plotin represents the side of insignificant thinking. The consciousness and the self-consciousness are part of the nous intelligence. These recognize a whole, the self-thinking thinks the multiplicity.
In Descartes the ego gains predominance. Thereby emerges a new interpretation of Plotin's One, now worked out by transcendental thinking. In fact, Descartes destroyed the One. The consciousness has a function of knowledge: with that function consciousness will drive back. The history of the ego I and his consciousness does not yet exist. In this paper the author will attempt this work by pointing at the following differences: 1 The resting I, to be found in Plotin by perceptio and intentio. Leibniz had known the vagabonding I, too.
The consciousness gets a vessel, in which the I is contained. The I emerges therein, getting phase of the inward consciousness, the subject of the consciousness as later in German idealism. Here is developing the term self-confidence, which is the way to Dilthey and Freud, exactly. A phenomenological and hermeneutic reading of Eckhart is intended in order to show the legitimacy and relevancy of examining his thought in the light of the categories of memory and identity.
This allows the author to determine the meaning and function of the Eckhartian Ich in an exploration that goes through three stages, i. The "hermeneutic cross" as a theoretical model of analysis enables the author to trace out the role of memory and identity in Eckhart's Ich as the location of a twofold intercrossed ecstasies Plotinus, Dyonisus and the encounter of freedom and grace.
Zu Beginn des 3. Von E. Dill und Ch. Grabar APh 17, p. Turner, ed. Psychological problems in Christian and Platonist theories of the grades of virtue", in Proceedings of the Boston area colloquium in ancient philosophy , vol. Cleary and G. Gurtler, S. Voir C. Steel, "Commentary on Brittain, ibid. Based largely on statements of the Neo-Platonist philosophers Plotinus and Iamblichus, it is maintained that Egyptian hieroglyphic writing was seen as inaudible divine speech, the inscription of which constituted a demiurgic act of energeia manifesting the truth of invisible mysteries by means of visible symbols.
Adapted from the source document. Pages pertain to Plotinus. Un chapitre sur Plotin. Was empfindet die Seele? Landweer und U. Renz Hg. Gutschmidt, A. Lang-Balestra, G. Segalerba eds. In focussing on the soul's activity in the sensible world, Blumenthal has claimed that the functions of a Plotinian soul are basically those of Aristotle. Against this I argue that the soul's activity in the sensible world is merely its external and nonessential activity. This activity follows from its internal and essential activity -- from the soul's own life in the intelligible realm.
I discuss the two essential functions of what the soul's own life is constituted and explain how Plotinus gives the soul a place in the intelligible realm, thereby carefully distinguishing the life of the intellect from that of the soul. Miscarea ca principiu de individuatie An Ascendent Analysis of the Contemplation and Vision in the text of the "Enneades".
Markovits et G. The author settles down a point of union between the philosophy of Plotino and the poetry that in honour to San Juan de la Cruz she published in the work Aunque haya niebla. In this poem's book she tries herself to see God without falling in the pantheism. Towards the end of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, as almost all of the tragic strokes of the story have fallen, the narrator-makere turns away from his material to address a kind of envoy to his 'litel bok'.
In two stanzas he sends his poem on its way, cautioning and exhorting it in the same breath. This article is a re-examination of the ending, with special emphasis on these two stanzas, in the light of Plotinus's Neoplatonic scheme of exitus and reditus, or emanation and return-to-source, that appears to influence the imagery and language of the poem at this stage. Although Plotinus's Enneads were not read in their own right in the Middle Ages, they were transmitted through various influential channels, including Augustine and the pseudo-Dionysius. Through these thinkers, the idea of exitus and reditus came to influence Aquinas, and the theology of the later medieval period.
In a discussion that draws upon Dante, the letter to Can Grande della Scala, and the Cursor Mundi, the author of this article traces the implications for the value of the poem, and its flawed, worldly subject, that the invocation of the Neoplatonic scheme of emanation entails. In Timaeus 49 d-e Plato refers to the construction of the physical world and the appropriate ways to name the phainomena. Concerning these lines -- considered "A much misread passage in Plato's Timaeus" by H. Cherniss -- is notable the interpretative disagreement between scholars. In this paper I will review the main exegetical lines adopted by specialists since the last century and, on this basis, try to determine which could have been the reading assumed by Plotinus on this subject when in some passages of his Enneads seems to remit to this section of the Timaeus.
Using the example of Plotinus, argues that God is necessary for reason, but reason cannot go further than the door of God's mystical dwelling. This is why the evidence of religious mysticism is always exposed to the skepticism of reason. This book presents Plotinus's Neoplatonism as the culmination of Greek philosophy. A thorough analysis of the Enneads that Plotinus, departuring from Middle Platonism and Neopythagoreanism, achieved a profound understanding of the existing Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic texts this way he was able to go beyond the classic ontology by means of his henology, his metaphysic of the one, that is above all being, life and thought, as the begin and end, and so the goal of the 'Odysee' of the soul, when man, transformed during this itinerary as musician, lover and philosopher, happily returns to the fatherly home.
A critical exploration of the history and nature of a hermeneutic assumption that frequently guided interpretations of Plotinus from the 18th century onward, namely that Plotinus advanced a system of philosophy. The concept is absent from Ficino's commentary from the 15th century, and it remained absent in interpretations produced between the 15th and 18th centuries.
Eduard Zeller is typically regarded as the first to give a satisfying account of Plotinus' philosophy as a whole, but he is better seen as having finalized a tradition initiated in the 18th century. Alcuni considerazioni critiche", Verifiche 25 , , Introduzione Rassegna bibliografica. Allusioni indirette al cristianesimo e progetti di rivitalizzazione dei culti ellenici: Pierre de Labriolle Convergenze e divergenze con il cristianesimo ortodosso: Arthur Hilary Armstrong Plotino e il platonismo anticristiano: Anthony Meredith e Christos Evangeliou Riepilogo Osservazioni critiche.
Conoscenza del cristianesimo da parte di Plotino? Influsso plotiniano su Porfirio o viceversa? Plotino successore di Celso? Plotino propagandista anticristiano? Un'opposizione necessaria? Conclusione Per una corretta impostazione del rapporto tra filosofia e mistica in Plotino. Il significato della filosofia plotiniana Filosofia e mistica dell'Anima. Una mistica poco appariscente Anima e anime La mistica della separazione dal corpo La funzione catartica della filosofia Conclusioni Bibliografia Rassegna degli studi di autori italiani sulla filosofia di Plotino pubblicati in lingua italiana tra il e il , con sunto schematico del contenuto di ciascuno.
Plotino contro gli gnostici Analisi di alcuni passi di Enn. Agostino e la fortuna di un tema plotiniano nella psicologia altomedievale ", in Studi sull'anima in Plotino , a cura di Riccardo Chiaradonna, Bibliopolis, Napoli, , Due trattati sull'anima nel IX secolo L'origine plotiniana dell'argomento agostiniano Incorporea, non divina Appendice I 2 : la soluzione plotiniana dell'aporia di Parm.
On human destiny before birth and after death. Saint Augustinus subjects to a meticulous surveying the imaginative event in its complexity, like a total psycho-physic process and, therefore, its somatic implications. Its specific products--the fantastic creations--are some peculiar expressive and interpretative modalities of the truth. They are produced spontaneously in the course of the cognitive activity and that they have however need of a continuous correction.